By John F. Watts
Largely revised and up-to-date with extra fabric integrated in present chapters and new fabric on perspective resolved XPS, floor engineering and complimentary methods.
* contains an available creation to the most important spectroscopic recommendations in floor analysis.
* presents descriptions of up to date tools and techniques.
* encompasses a special word list of key floor research phrases.
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Extra info for An Introduction To Surface Analysis By XPS And AES
It is normal practice to collect XPS spectra in the CAE mode. Outer hemisphere .. Mean potential Inner hemisphere o a. 11 XPS of Ag showing the effect of pass energy upon the Ag 3d part of the spectrum CRR mode of operation In the CRR mode electrons are retarded to some user-defined fraction of their original kinetic energy as they pass through the analyser (the retard ratio). 12. 12 Operation of the HSA in constant retard ratio mode 42 ELECTRON SPECTROMETER DESIGN In this mode the pass energy is proportional to the kinetic energy: Pass energy = Kinetic energy Retard ratio The percentage resolution in this mode of operation is constant and inversely proportional to the retard ratio.
With the recent introduction of ion guns capable of beam energies below ~50eV, it is now possible to obtain high-quality Auger data from insulators by the simple expedient of using a low flux of such ions for charge control. The positive ions neutralize the surface and their energy is too low to cause atoms to be sputtered from the surface. In the special case of a thin insulating layer on a conducting or semiconducting sample, the use of a high primary beam energy can induce a conducting track within the insulating layer and excess charge can be dissipated.
This page intentionally left blank 2 Electron Spectrometer Design The design and construction of electron spectrometers is a very complex undertaking and will usually be left to one of the handful of specialist manufacturers worldwide, although many users specify minor modifications to suit their own requirements. The various modules necessary for analysis by electron spectroscopy are (in addition to a specimen): a source of the primary beam (either X-rays or electrons); an electron energy analyser and detection system, all contained within a vacuum chamber; a data system which is nowadays an integral part of the system.
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