By Michael Wilkinson
How does the mind keep an eye on sexual habit, or keep an eye on our bodyweight? How can we focus on pressure? Addressing those questions and lots of extra in addition to, this completely revised new version displays the numerous advances which have been made within the examine of neuroendocrinology over the past two decades. The textual content examines the significance of the hypothalamus in regulating hormone secretion from the endocrine glands, describing novel websites of hormone unencumber together with bone, center, skeletal muscle and liver. The position of steroid hormone, neurotransmitter and peptide receptors, and the molecular responses of aim tissues, is built-in into the dialogue of the neuroendocrine mind, in particular via adjustments in gene expression. specific consciousness is hooked up to neuropeptides, together with their profound impact on habit. whole with new full-color figures all through, besides assessment and essay questions for every bankruptcy, this is often an amazing source for undergraduate and graduate scholars of neuroscience, psychology, biology and body structure.
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Additional info for An Introduction to Neuroendocrinology
This is why synthetic glucocorticoids are used for treatment of arthritis and as anti-transplant rejection drugs. 6; see also Kadmiel and Cidlowski 2013) resulting, for example, in inhibition of growth and reproduction, immunosuppression, insulin resistance (diabetes), and increased deposition of fat. Chronic high levels of glucocorticoids can also damage neurons and lead to neuron death via apoptosis (Charmandari et al. 2). The adrenal cortex also produces small amounts of the sex steroids testosterone and estradiol and the androgen precursor molecules dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione that can be converted to testosterone in other tissues.
Leptin induced a striking decrease in body fat (body weight: 32 kg). Reproduced with permission (Farooqi 2011). 11 Vitamins Most vitamins, such as the B vitamins, do not qualify as hormones because they are not produced in the body, but are consumed as nutrients in food, though there are suggestions that food itself should be considered as a hormone (Ryan and Seeley 2013). On the other hand, vitamins A, D and K are formed in the body and have hormone-like actions. Vitamin A is formed in the body from carotene; vitamin D in the skin through the action of sunlight; and vitamin K by bacteria in the intestines.
For example, there are a number of non-hormonal chemicals, such as carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, glucose (blood sugar), histamine and the prostaglandins, which also regulate the physiological actions of their target cells. Hormones are effective in minute quantities, although the physiological concentrations vary, depending on the hormone. g. thyrotropin-releasing hormone, TRH; corticotropin-releasing hormone, CRH) are secreted in very small quantities (femtograms, 10−15 g). Pituitary hormones are released in greater quantities (picograms, 10−12 g) and gonadal, adrenal and thyroid hormones are released in much larger quantities (nanograms, 10−9 g).
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