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Extra info for Affirmative Action and Minority Enrollments in Medical and Law Schools
The National Review concluded its story by commenting that universities have a "powerful legal base from which to resist the doctrinaire levelling of Eleanor Holmes Norton and her associates, who [believe] there is a positive duty to integrate color-consciously, even when no discrimination is proved" ("Bakke: Enduring Question" 1978,879). ) The Anti-Defamation League representative stated that the decision was a "significant victory in the effort to halt the use of quotas and their equivalents in admission to colleges and graduate schools" (Cheryl Fields 1978, 1).
Data from Statistical Abstract 1995. ) Education Primary and secondary education is another resource essential to college education. Before students can attend college, they need to complete high school. Here blacks are making steady gains (fig. 4). Whereas in 1960 only 20 percent of all black adults had graduated from high school, by 1994, 65 percent had. Unlike income gains, which stagnated in the late 1970s and early 1980s, education gains continued, so that even between 1980 and 1990 the proportion of black adults graduating from high school increased by 15 percent.
The slump in college attendance by black students was not as sharp as the decline in real income, and the increase in enrollment in the late 1980s and through the 1990s outpaced gains in black family income. Whites CXXl,CXXl's 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 0 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 • Whites Blacks and Hispanics CXXl's 1600 1500 1400 1300 1200 1100 1CXXl 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 • Blacks -f-tiispanics Fig. 5. College enrollment by ethnicity.
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