By Hartmut Janocha
Adaptronics is the time period encompassing technical fields that experience turn into recognized the world over below the names "smart materials", "intelligent structures", and "smart structures". Adaptronics contributes to the optimisation of structures and items. It bridges the distance among fabric and system/product and contains the hunt for multi-functional fabrics and components and their integration in structures or buildings. The authors of this booklet have taken at the job of showing the present cutting-edge during this box. The method elements actuators, sensors and controllers, technical basics, fabrics layout principles and sensible ideas are defined. chosen pattern purposes also are represented and present improvement tendencies are established.
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Extra info for Adaptronics and Smart Structures: Basics, Materials, Design, and Applications
3 Energy Conversion Energy conversion between diﬀerent energy forms is the primary base of many adaptronic structures. Active functional materials must be used for such purposes. For each energy form, there is a set of generalized conjugate variables (their product has the dimension of energy density) consisting of a generalized force and a generalized displacement. They can be scalars, vectors or tensors. If one kind of generalized force can produce a displacement other then its own conjugate, then the material has the ability to convert energy from one form to the other, and is called an active functional material.
2 Basic Principles of Functional Materials As deﬁned in Chap. 1, adaptronic structures are designed to perform all three functions: sensing, control and actuation. Roughly speaking, an adaptronic structure is a primitive replica of a biological body. Multifunctional materials are essential components of an adaptronic structure in which each component must be able to communicate with others. Only a limited number of natural materials can meet the high demand of adaptronics. 2 Basic Principles of Functional Materials 31 enhanced functionality and/or to create new functional materials.
When placed in a magnetic ﬁeld, the magnetic domains in a magnetostrictor rotate until they are aligned with the ﬁeld, resulting in expansion of the material. Magnetostrictive material response is basically quadratic in magnetic ﬁeld, i. , the magnetostrictive response does not change sign when the magnetic ﬁeld is reversed. However, the nonlinear magnetostrictive behavior can be linearized about an operating point through the application of a bias magnetic ﬁeld. In this case, piezomagnetic behavior, in which response reversal accompanies ﬁeld reversal, can be obtained.
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